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See also Henriques, Percursos, The Portuguese still intended to extend their Angola colony towards the upper Zambezi but that would imply either the political collaboration or the military subjugation of the Ovimbundu kingdoms, mainly Viye and Mbalundu. It also allowed the transfer of slaves ‘by sea’ between Portuguese territories and to Brazil under certain limits.

But it also happened through the hardening of internal judicial systems that resulted in more people being enslaved, both on a temporary and a permanent basis. I am still sick, so it looks like grilled cheese and soup are on the menu for today, but who doesn’t love grilled cheese and chicken noodle soup??

However, the victors complained that they could not get the expected number of slaves, the main motive for traders and settlers in supporting the war. Helping others is what I love to do, are you ready to hit your goals? It is tempting to relate this to the slave trade, as the use of the language of ‘eating’ or consumption to describe enslavement is widely recorded throughout the Angolan region.

Log In Sign Up. Miller, ‘The paradoxes of impoverishment in the Atlantic zone’, in Birmingham and Martin eds. Yet these aspects are equally documented. Indigenato – the judicial and political system used in some Portuguese colonies Angola, Mozambique and Guinea between andbased on the Native Statute applied to ‘blacks and their descendants’.

Sobba Ecuhique to Cheffe da Catumbella, 18 September Miller considered that this Portuguese expedition ‘displaced the old warrior lords on the central plateau and installed merchant princes willing to sell slaves to the Portuguese in Wambu and other highland states near Caconda’.

Bibliografia insular. | Alberto Vieira –

Discussions on social change related to the urban environment need to take into account those experiences outside the limits 33 The most urbanized and industrialized region of central Africa, the Katanga province of the Belgian Congo and the adjacent Northern Rhodesian Copperbelt, was connected to central Angola by the Benguela railway.

Those inselbergs were often reinforced with stone walls closing the empty spaces between the rocks and leaving a labyrinthic access, and some were the centre of royal capitals.


What was often a nightmare for citizens or ‘natives’ became a blessing for historians. The new king, Numa after Katiavala who succeeded Ekwikwidecided to threaten the Portuguese position with a concentration of people in an aggressive mood, with chants and insults. To become a kilombo warrior implied much more than just living in the camp and following a warlord. Even Luanda in the s was not the ‘creole island’ still represented in some studies of Angola.

Contradictory interests existed between northern and southern Portugal bourgeoisies, rural and industrial sectors, or metropolitan and colonial bourgeoisies. See Delgado, Ao Sul, I, The original text is from Townspeople but not citizens, c. The place and the people Attempts to impose on the hinterland of Benguela the kind of rule the Portuguese managed to establish north of the Kwanza River after one hundred years of wars were discouraged not only by the warlords that dominated a great part of the plateau but also by the geography of the territory.

This does not necessarily imply a questioning of their work, yet I wished to avoid a certain circularity of evidence in a milieu, Angolan history, where authors are just a few. He considers in detail questions of social mobility, subjective transformation and expectations of the Protestants, although he recognizes the difficulties in hearing Angolan voices in the missionary sources.

The Last Hundred Years London, This, I hope, will keep the reader aware that ‘native’ status was not a cultural or political divide common in all periods of colonization but a twentieth-century legal imposition, with implications for all aspects of life.

Maria C Neto Ph D SOAS London | Maria C Neto –

Portugal was granted a huge territory in Africa but the dominant domestic discourse claimed that the great powers had ‘robbed’ the Portuguese of imaginary colonial possessions and still conspired to take over the rest of them on the grounds that Portugal was unable to exploit their resources.

The Portuguese military force had to retreat to Mbalundu and the pretext for a full-scale military intervention was found. Whatever Lisbon’s intentions and decisions, the situation on the ground responded to local priorities. But my own shortcomings are no reason to reject the importance of historians going beyond borders, both of colonial geographies and of academic disciplines.

Inthere was again alarming news about a supposed mobilization by the soma of Wambu against Delgado, Ao sul, I, The chapter will also scrutinize some of the changes that turned independent Africans into imperial subjects and then into ‘natives’, that is, non- citizens in their own land. In Umbundu ocilombo pl.

He fled to Mbimbi, were he was wounded in a later combat. At least some local entrepreneurs and republican groups envisaged the colony as an autonomous country 22 Clarence-Smith, Third Portuguese Empire, He was aware of how peoples’ names depended on who was naming who.


Vansina’s book is essential to any discussion of central Angola’s remote past. He also asked for a 99 A conference on Ekwikwi II in Luanda in revealed the difference between the document-based research and the use of non recorded oral narratives by ‘inspired’ writers.

In Angola, slavery or slave-like labour persisted, as did the trade in non-agricultural African products rubber, ivory, beeswax. This was the usual system in Benguela and central Angola at large, but the rubber boom after put more pressure on available labour and made forced recruitment more common, under many disguises.

His book was the basis for Merran McCulloch’s later work which, despite some minor problems, is the best ethnographic synthesis available. Epstein, one of the founders of urban sociology in Africa, noted, ‘Towns…are not self-contained social entities, but have their place within a wider field of social relationships. Facing the fact that they could not prevail in combat against the Imbangala bands, the Portuguese used them as commercial and military partners, which proved decisive on more than one occasion.

Their way of life, from occupation to leisure time or household composition may vary greatly, they may be more or less close to their rural kin, but those who stayed became townspeople — a 31 Cf. Viye and Mbalundu, the more important trading partners of the Portuguese, were the first to fall.

Repeat, again and again. The only great mining company was the diamond concessionary Caheb. Magyar and Silva Porto are the main primary sources, but Serpa Pinto is also of interest.

It was only after the war, however, that conquest could be considered accomplished. But by the end of the nineteenth century, military conquest or diplomatic and commercial pressure had greatly enlarged Angola. In the absence of studies on Angolan migrant workers comnicao diasporas, this question could not be fully treated but its importance has to be acknowledged.

Apparently, they were a totally new cahsn among the social, political and military forms of their times.